IEC Standard for Rare earth-iron-boron (REFeB) Magnets

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) published the standard IEC 60404-8-1:2015 for magnetically hard materials (permanent magnets). In this standard, the part of Rare earth-iron-boron (REFeB) magnets’ magnetic properties and densities is shown in the table below. In the REFeB magnets, the RE element is mainly neodymium (Nd), and the manufacturing method is a powder sintering process, so REFeB magnets are also known as sintered NdFeB magnets. China supplies most of the sintered NdFeB magnets in the global market, for those… Read More

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sintered ndfeb magnet microstructure SEM TEM

Introduction to Basic Composition and Microstructure of Sintered NdFeB Magnet

Sintered neodymium iron boron (NdFeB) magnet or neodymium (Nd) magnet, as its name implies, contains essential rare earth Nd element. Nd atoms, coupling with ferromagnetic element iron (Fe) atoms, help the magnet obtain high remanence (Br) and maximum energy product ((BH)max), which makes it extraordinary compared with other permanent magnets. In commercial sintered NdFeB magnet, Nd element is usually partially substituted by other rare earth elements including praseodymium (Pr), dysprosium (Dy) and terbium (Tb), etc. Because Nd and Pr elements… Read More

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reversible flux loss, irreversible flux loss of rare earth permanent magnets

What is Maximum Working Temperature of a Permanent Magnet?

Permanent magnets are widely applied in various motors, sensors/instruments and electronics, their temperatures almost vary more or less during work. These temperature variations are resulted from eddy current effect and/or ambient temperature variation. Due to thermal fluctuation and magnetic domain evolution, a permanent magnet loses some or all magnetic flux when its temperature elevates. Here comes a question, how high temperature can a permanent magnet withstand to work? For a commercial permanent magnet, the upper temperature limit is called maximum… Read More

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N48SH Grade Neodymium Magnet Demagnetization Curves

What are Temperature Coefficients α and β of Permanent Magnets?

A permanent magnet’s magnetic properties change as a variation of temperature. For a permanent magnet, remanence (Br) and intrinsic coercivity (Hcj or Hci) are two major parameters, it is important to consider their changes with corresponding temperature variation at work. In order to describe the relative changes, they are calculated according to the following two formulas: α = [Br(T1)-Br(T2)]/Br(T1)/[ T1-T2]×100                              (1) β = [Hcj(T1)-Hcj(T2)]/Hcj(T1)/[T1-T2]×100     … Read More

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Permanent magnet maximum energy product

What is the Strongest Commercial Permanent Magnet in the World?

Researchers and engineers have never stopped their steps to discover and develop novel permanent magnets since 1910s, and several types of permanent magnets had been commercialized and they have been widely used in motion, energy, electronics, medical and other high technologies in our daily life. However, little breakthrough has been taken in the past 18 years of the 21st century. In the current market, almost all types of commercial permanent magnets (ferrite, NdFeB, SmCo and AlNiCo, etc.) were discovered and… Read More

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Magnetization and demagnetization of permanent magnet

How to Magnetize and Demagnetize a Permanent Magnet, respectively?

Due to random orientation for micro magnetic domains, a permanent magnet usually does not provide any magnetic flux when it is produced. It needs to be magnetized to saturation for use. So how to magnetize a permanent magnet? The basic principle is using a coil, i.e. an electromagnet, to generate a magnetic field. The generated magnetic field increases as the charging current increases, it drives micro magnetic domains of a permanent magnet rotate to the magnetization direction. When all the… Read More

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N42SH magnet demagnetization curve

Do Magnets ever Lose Their Magnetism or Get Weaker?

Actually permanent magnets are not permanent. A Permanent Magnet is a material which has ability to resist demagnetization, including filed demagnetization and thermal demagnetization. The ability is characterized by a physical parameter called coercivity. In regard to field demagnetization, if a demagnetizing field or reverse field is smaller than a permanent magnet’s coercivity, the permanent magnet will keep the same magnetic flux (the demagnetizing process is linear and reversible when the demagnetizing field is lower than a threshold value) or… Read More

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Neodymium iron boron radially oriented NdFeB ring magnets neodymium anisotropic sintered ring magnets single pole multi poles skew rare earth

Radially Oriented NdFeB Ring Magnets

Radially oriented neodymium iron boron (NdFeB) ring magnets are state-of-the-art ring magnets with diverse magnetization patterns in radial direction. In general, they provide high performance and cost-effective alternatives to arc/segment magnets. According to different production processes, radially oriented NdFeB ring magnets include sintered NdFeB ring magnets, bonded NdFeB ring magnets and hot-pressed NdFeB ring magnets. 1. High dimensional accuracy,2. Optional magnetization patterns including single pole, straight multi-pole and skew multi-pole types,3. A single ring magnet makes assembly and installation easy… Read More

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N35 Magnet and N52 Magnet Demagnetization Curves

What is the Difference between N35 and N52 Magnets?

What are N35 and N52 magnets? Seen from their grade strings, both of them are sintered neodymium iron boron (NdFeB) magnets. These two magnets have the same intrinsic coercivity Hcj level higher than 12 kOe (in CGS unit) or 955 kA/m (in SI unit). It is also obviously seen that their maximum energy product (BH)max are around 35 and 52 MGOe, respectively. This huge difference means that the N52 magnets have around 49% more energy than that of the N35… Read More

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Corrosion resistance and coatings of rare earth permanent magnets

Corrosion Resistance of Rare Earth Permanent Magnets

In the Rare Earth Permanent Magnets family, the 1st generation 1:5 type SmCo magnets and 2nd generation 2:17 type SmCo magnets have high corrosion resistance due to the high cobalt content. Just like ferrite/ceramic magnets and AlNiCo magnets, SmCo magnets usually do not need any treatment for applications. The 3rd generation NdFeB magnets, however, are not the same. Although they have superior magnetic properties, they are more vulnerable to corrosion in humid environments, resulting in the deterioration of magnetic properties… Read More

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XGS32H SmCo Samarium Cobalt Magnet Demagnetization Curve

Sintered SmCo Magnet Grades

Samarium cobalt (SmCo) magnets include 1:5 type (SmCo5) and 2:17 type (Sm2Co17) magnets. Both types of SmCo magnet grades basically include three parts, i.e. “letter 1” + “number” + “letter 2”. The three parts in sintered SmCo magnet grades present material type, (BH)max value (in CGS unit) and Hcj level, respectively. The part “letter 1” are “XG” and “XGS” for sintered SmCo5 and Sm2Co17 magnets, respectively. Besides, the Hcj levels of sintered SmCo5 magnets include “default” (Hcj ≥ 15 kOe)… Read More

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ring bonded NdFeB magnets, neodymium iron boron, rare earth permanent magnets, ring magnets, China magnet supplier

How to Understand the Grade of Bonded NdFeB Magnet?

Unlike sintered NdFeB magnets having extensive recognition of the uniform grades in the global market, the grades of bonded NdFeB magnets are mainly based on the technology and standard of each manufacturer itself. For our company, the grades of bonded NdFeB magnets mostly include two parts, i.e. “HGT-“ + “number”. The left part “HGT” is our company’s short name. The right part “number” represents value of (BH)max (in CGS unit). The value varies from 2 to 12. In a few… Read More

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N42 Magnet and N42SH Neodymium Magnets Demagnetization Curves

Sintered NdFeB Magnet Grades

Generally, the sintered NdFeB magnet grades are strings containing three parts, i.e. “N” + “number” + “letter”. The part “N” is the initial letter of neodymium, meaning it is a sintered neodymium iron boron magnet. So it is constant for all the neodymium magnet grades. The part “number” represents value of maximum energy product (BH)max (in CGS unit). The value varies from 28 to 52. The part “letter” reflects level of intrinsic coercivity Hcj. The levels include “M” (Hcj ≥… Read More

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crystal structures of rare earth permanent magnets smco magnets ndfeb magnets

What are Rare Earth Permanent Magnets (REPMs)?

Rare earth permanent magnets (REPMs) are permanent magnets which are based on some rare earth elements (Sm, Nd, Pr, Dy, Ce, etc.) to form critical magnetic structures. In regard to crystal structures, REPMs include a. 1:5 type SmCo magnets (hexagonal CaCu5 type structure) also called 1st generation REPMs, b. 2:17 type SmCo magnets (rhombohedral Th2Zn17 type structure) also called 2nd generation REPMs and c. Nd2Fe14B magnets (tetragonal crystal structure) also called 3rd generation REPMs. Compared with other types of permanent… Read More

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permanent magnet types

What is a Permanent Magnet?

A permanent magnet is a material that is able to provide magnetic flux when magnetized with an applied magnetic field. The ability is characterized by two key parameters: remanence and coercivity. Generally, a permanent magnet’s intrinsic coercivity (Hcj) is higher than 300kOe (in CGS unit) or 24kA/m (in SI unit). With higher coervivity, a permanent magnet has higher ability to resist demagnetization, including field demagnetization from the electric or magnetic circuit and thermal demagnetization from the working temperature in various… Read More

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